Maize crop has become an important food crop due to its strong adaptability to the environment and wide application value. In the new era when agricultural machinery is widely used in agricultural production, the whole mechanized operation of growing corn and harvesting has become the consensus of all countries. The maize planter machine is an important model for corn planting, which has the advantages of high efficiency and reliable function. It is the best way to plant sweet corn.
Working principle of maize planter machine
The main structure of the maize planter machine includes a seedbox, a furrow opener, a seed metering device, a fertilizer box, a fertilizer discharging device, and a soil covering and pressing device. In the process of sowing operation, the main power of the planter comes from the rear power output shaft of the tractor. The small corn planter is the manpower behind the machine. Under the traction of the tractor, the ditcher opens a soil ditch for sowing and fertilizing within a preset depth.
Due to the effect of friction, the ground wheel continuously rolls and drives the seed metering device and fertilizer metering device to work in the process of advancing. Then, the seeds and fertilizers are discharged into the ditch through different pipelines, and the soil covering device and the compaction device is used to cover and compact the soil.
The trencher can achieve uniform trenching, even and fine soil after trenching, and the seeds can directly reach the required position and depth when they fall into the seed trench during sowing. The soil-returning function of the ditcher can be used to partially cover the seeds. The structure of the trencher is required to have good soil cutting and trenching capacity, and its structure shall be used to minimize soil resistance during trenching. At the same time, the ditcher can also reduce the occurrence of residual grass and blockage problems.
Seed metering device
Because the seed metering speed of the seed metering device is directly related to the traveling speed of the seeder. Therefore, in order to ensure that a certain amount of seeds are planted within a certain distance, the working speed and frequency of the seed metering device must be adjusted by the ground wheel to reduce the occurrence of missed seeding or uneven seeding.
The fertilizer used by mechanical corn planters is mostly granular fertilizer. However, due to the different particle sizes, the working performance of the fertilizer discharger may be greatly affected. This requires that the fertilizer extractor of the maize planter machine has good adaptability. The requirements for the working capacity of the fertilizer discharge device include that the fertilizer discharge is uniform and reliable, the amount of fertilizer discharge is easy to adjust and the position of fertilizer discharge is accurate.
In addition, the fertilizer discharger should also be able to adapt to the fertilizer discharge work when the fertilizer is wet and caked to a certain extent. The fertilizer discharge device is usually directly connected to the fertilizer guide pipe. After the fertilizer is discharged, it is discharged into the seed ditch through the fertilizer guide pipe, which is more conducive to the precise control of the fertilizer discharge position.
Earth covering and compaction device
In general, the soil-returning ability of the ditcher of the maize planter machine cannot effectively cover the seeds. At this time, the soil is covered again by the soil-covering device. Common earth-covering devices include earth covering plate, an earth-covering ring, and an earth-covering roller. The requirement of soil covering operation is that the covering thickness of cultivated soil is consistent so that the wet soil originally in the lower layer directly contacts the seeds. The upper layer of dry soil is still in the upper layer, and the soil coverage is tight. At the same time, the seeding position cannot be affected.